Journal of SMT Article


Authors: Puligandia Viswanadham et al.
Company: Raytheon TI Systems
Date Published: 1/1/1999   Volume: 12-1

Abstract: Ball grid array (BGA) packages are becoming increasingly popular in several commercial and industrial products owing to their design superiority and ease of assembly in comparison to conventional perimeter leaded packages. A multitude of BGA package styles have come into use. Published reliability data covers many commercial and industrial applications, but data for extended temperature ranges applicable to military products has been sparse.

This paper describes assembly process and reliability studies with four different packages, namely ceramic, plastic, tape, and super BGAs on a multi-layer high-performance FR-4 epoxy glass laminate test vehicle. Aspects investigated included effects of package position on the board, effects of package heat capacity on reflow profile, different solder volume, proximity of discretes on rework, double-sided reflow, cleanability, etc.

Since conventional rework procedures are not immediately applicable to BGA packages, rework processes were developed for many of the packages using commercially available tooling and equipment. Thermal cycling data in the range of -40 to 125 degrees C was collected. Twenty-eight pin leadless ceramic chip carriers were included in the component menu for comparison.

Observed failure rates were found to be in reasonable agreement with published values as well as with calculated values. Acceptable thermal cycling reliability was demonstrated for plastic and super BGAI packages in the range of -40 to 125 degrees C. The results of the assembly process studies, reliability evaluations, and failure modes are discussed.

Key words: ball grid array, assembly, reliability, rework, package-to-board interconnection.

* Reprinted from October ’98 Journal of SMT, where it appeared without Figures 1-16.

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